Understanding Dry Eye: Top 5 Causes, Symptoms, and Essential Eye Care Tips

Understanding Dry Eye: Causes, Symptoms, and Care

As the tech world grows and 3C products flood the market, dry eye syndrome instances continue to climb annually.

Experiencing constant eye fatigue and dryness? Wondering if it might be dry eye syndrome? The dilemma between grabbing some store-bought eye drops or seeking medical attention can be tough. So, what are the indicative symptoms of dry eye syndrome, and how can we best nurture our eyes? We'll explore these topics further.

Causes of Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndrome, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a condition caused by an imbalance in the tear gland secretion. This can be due to an insufficient production of tears or rapid evaporation of the tear film, leading to the inability to maintain moisture on the eye's surface, resulting in inflammation. It is one of the more common conditions seen in ophthalmic clinics.


Tears function within the tear film, which covers the front surface of the eyeball. The tear film consists of the following three layers:

🔸 Lipid (oily) Layer:


Function: This is the outermost layer of the tear film. Its primary purpose is to prevent the tear film's evaporation and increase its stability. This layer also aids in spreading the tears evenly over the eye's surface every time you blink.

Composition: Produced by the meibomian glands located along the margins of the eyelids, this layer is composed mainly of oils or lipids.

Significance: A deficiency or abnormality in this layer can result in rapid tear evaporation, leading to dry eye symptoms.


🔸 Aqueous Layer:


Function: This is the middle and the thickest layer, which provides nourishment to the cornea and the conjunctiva (the clear tissue covering the white part of the eye). It also carries away waste products and debris from the eye's surface.

Composition: Mainly composed of water and small amounts of salt, this layer is produced by the lacrimal glands located above each eye.

Significance: A deficiency in this layer can lead to the eye's surface becoming dry and deprived of essential nutrients.


🔸 Mucin Layer:


Function: This is the innermost layer that helps anchor and spread the aqueous layer across the eye to ensure it stays wet. It also helps the tear film adhere to the eye's surface.

Composition: Made up of mucins (a type of protein), this layer is produced by goblet cells found in the conjunctiva and the cornea.

Significance: An abnormal or deficient mucin layer can lead to poor tear distribution, causing dry spots on the eye's surface.

Decoding the 5 Key Triggers of Dry Eye Syndrome

🔺 Digital Device Usage

Spending long hours staring at computer, tablet, or phone screens can lead to excessive focus, which in turn reduces blink rate and lessens tear production.

🔺 Environmental Changes

Being in air-conditioned or heated rooms for extended periods can dry out the eyes. Air pollution and PM2.5 particles can block the tear ducts, preventing smooth tear production.

🔺 Stress

Wearing contact lenses for a long time and enduring chronic mental stress can degrade the quality of tears.

🔺 Age and Diseases

Aging can decrease tear gland functionality, leading to insufficient tear production. Autoimmune diseases, endocrine abnormalities, lacrimal gland tumors, infectious conjunctivitis, facial nerve paralysis, thyroid eye disease, and eyelid inflammation, among others, can all trigger dry eye syndrome.

🔺 Medication Induced


Taking specific medications for extended periods, such as antihypertensives, antihistamines, oral contraceptives, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, can reduce tear production and lead to dry eyes.

Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome

The typical symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome include:

  1. Dryness, redness, itching, and stinging in the eyes.
  2. Sensitivity to bright light and easy fatigue.
  3. A sensation of having a foreign body in the eyes.
  4. Increased eye discharge, often resembling sleep or eye "gunk".
  5. Heavy eyelids and blurred vision.
  6. Excessive tearing following dryness.

Dry Eye Syndrome: Self-Assessment Approach

Mild Dry Eye Syndrome (0-4 Symptoms):

  • Artificial Tears:

    Apply lubricating eye drops to soothe the eyes.

  • Warm Compress Eye Mask:

    Utilize a warm compress to gently heat the eye area. This helps relax the surrounding muscles, reducing eye strain and improving circulation.

  • Dietary Adjustments:

    Increase your intake of high-quality fats, such as Omega-3 fish oil and flaxseed oil. These nutrients bolster the tear film's protective lipid layer and help mitigate inflammation associated with dry eyes.


Moderate Dry Eye Syndrome (5-8 Symptoms):

  • Preservative-Free Artificial Tears & Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops:

    Opt for artificial tears free of preservatives and use anti-inflammatory drops to alleviate symptoms.

  • Oral Medications:

    Consider taking oral medications that enhance tear production and address inflammation.


Severe Dry Eye Syndrome (9-12 Symptoms):

  • Surgical Interventions:

    Procedures such as eyelid suturing or the placement of permanent punctal plugs may be necessary for severe cases.



Important Note: Avoid self-medicating with over-the-counter drugs for prolonged periods, as this can lead to reduced sensitivity of the cornea and potentially cause conjunctival keratinization.

    Eye Care Tips and Precautions for Dry Eyes:

    Here are some daily habits and precautions for maintaining eye health:

    1. Maintain a regular sleep schedule, get enough rest, and avoid staying up late.
    2. Have a balanced diet. Consume vegetables and fruits rich in Vitamins A, C, and E, and limit the intake of fried foods.
    3. Include foods or supplements rich in Omega-3 in your diet.
    4. Reduce prolonged screen time. Allow your eyes to rest properly. For every hour spent looking at a screen, take a 5-10 minute break to prevent excessive eye fatigue.
    5. Be mindful of blinking frequently. On average, a person should blink 15-20 times per minute.
    6. Avoid direct airflow from air conditioners or heaters while indoors.
    7. Keep your eyelids and lashes clean. Use a warm towel for compresses to relieve eye fatigue and increase tear production.
    8. Limit the duration of wearing contact lenses. If you experience discomfort, remove them immediately.
    9. Get regular eye check-ups.
    Dry Eye Syndrome is a modern-day ailment. It's crucial to prioritize eye care in our daily lives. If you suspect you might have Dry Eye Syndrome, it's essential to get your eyes checked at a hospital. Avoid self-medicating to prevent unnecessary complications.
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